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Fruit Vendors Switch to Solar-lighting - the Hindu

Making use of the cheapest energy available - solar energy, mobile fruit vendors in the Krishna district headquarters have improved their business on the pavements this summer.The fruit vendors are now largely dependent on solar energy by hiring solar lights, which are being offered by the town-based solar energy service agencies on rental basis. As sun goes down, a visitor can witness beeline of solar lights focussing on fruits, mostly mango and banana, on the push-cart vehicles on either side of main roads in the town here.Introducing the solar power in fruit and vegetable market to address the electricity problem of the mobile vendors, many agencies are making good income promising supply of the solar light. "We supply a two-bulb light that works with solar energy to the vendor at his point in the evening. It is collected back the next morning to get it charged for the evening", said Gupta Solar Service's V. Nancharayya. He had expanded his business to around 20 customers and attends to every call that he receives from the vendors for either repair of the lights or for additional lights. Like Mr.Nancharayya, several solar service agencies have already tapped their market, even in Vijayawada city. "Each light functions for 8 to 10 hours, for which we have to pay a rent of Rs.25 a day. No matter to the supplier wherever we use the light, even in the house. When moving from place to place in search of customers is inevitable, this mode of energy is vendor-friendly at the lowest price", said K. Siva Prasad, a mango seller on mobile push-cart. Nevertheless, since the solar power agencies come down to the vendor, it's merely saving the time of the petty businessmen. In the case of mango vendors, the solar light is a perfect tool. "The yellow-fruit looks like more yellowish and fresh as the reflection of the light fell on them during the night time. It would obviously attract the visitors. It can also be easily carried and simply stand on the push-cart", said another mango vendor Y. Maheswara Rao. It's the petty businessmen community that had easily tackled their woes of electricity in the tiny town by finding their way to flourish their business.

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What Is Integrated Solar Street Lights
What Is Integrated Solar Street Lights
Traditional electrical street lights are losing it to their solar competitors. Due to their economy and reliability, they are gaining more standing. But what is solar powered street lightsand, how does it differ from other kinds? As the development goes on, gadgets become more compact and energy-efficient. Solar lights with small volumes and the same power are on everybody's wish list. Outdoor solar street lightsare way more feasible than conventional ones. These lights are a rising trend these days, so it is necessary to shine some light on them. Today we are knocking at your door with an informative post on integrated solar lights with lithium batteries. We will explain everything from scratch. Additionally, there are some facts you can go for when making your next purchase. What Is Integrated Solar Street Light And It Differs From Traditional Ones? Before discussing how an all-in-one best solar street lightsworks, let's understand the word 'integrated.' Integrated means that all the parts are inside a single unit. But what are these parts? It has a solar panel, the lamp, the controllers, and the battery enclosed in a single case. How is an integrated lithium ion solar lights different from a traditional one? Above all, they have discrete exteriors. The split solar street lights need wires to connect all the parts. On the other hand, the integrated ones have everything inside the pole. However, depending on models, some have their circuitry in poles. And, others are only a single piece with all the parts sealed at the back. The Battery Kind You must be thinking about what an integrated solar street light is in terms of battery kind. Do the conventional and integrated lithium ion solar lights use the same battery? No, absolutely no. The integrated street lights are solar lights with lithium batteries. But, the traditional street light uses lead batteries. Lead batteries have less life than lithium ones. Lithium batteries serve you three times longer than acid ones. Moreover, harsh winter reduces the working capacity of lead-acid batteries. Lead batteries don't work below -10degrees, while lithium batteries work with the same efficiency below -20 degrees. Installation Type The integrated solar lights with lithium batteries get their name from their installation. These lights have all the parts inside one unit. The ones that require separate connections are the split type. Installing split solar street lights take more effort and cost. The integrated ones are up and running in only a few steps. If you are working on a larger project, installing split lights will cost you 40 to 60% more than integrated ones. Panel Sizes and Power Another popular feature of the split solar lights is the panel size. As the thumb rule goes, a larger panel means more power. Now the panel size is something in which the split type best the integrated one. Larger panels have more tendency to store energy. Split solar street lights give you the liberty to choose the panel size you want. But, in the integrated ones, large panels require more budget. The Mounting Angles Integrated solar street lights don't give you much margin for customized angles. Solar panels should connect in a way they get maximum energy to store. Buying integratedlithium ion solar lights may not provide you with the needed efficiency if the angles are directional. Working of an All-In-One Integrated Street Light Now you have a good idea of what is integrated solar street lightis. Let's take a little peek at how it works. The solar panels absorb the energy from the sun. During the absorption process, they convert it into electrical energy. The lithium ion solar lightsuse electrical energy to charge. Once done, it uses this energy to illuminate the LED at night. The longer the solar panels absorb the sun's energy, the more night hours they work. Many models have sensors in them as well. When they sense the presence of a human body, they turn to maximum brightness. And when there is nothing on the sensors, the LED lights to medium light. Why Are The Integrated Solar Street Lights Better? Knowing the working principle and the definition of an integratedThe integratedsolar lights with lithium batteriesget their name from their installation. These lights have all the parts inside one unit.You should know what benefits it offers you. Firstly, it's fashionable and compact. Split lights don't offer you the same charm as the integrated ones. So if you are looking to give a modern innovative look to your project, the all-in-one is the best-case scenario. Secondly, they have sensors to conserve energy. The light only lights up when there is a human presence. Its responsible use of energy results in more working hours. They are waterproof and reliable. Their batteries work in severe weather conditions and also provide customization for installing CCTV cameras. The batteries of lithium ion solar lights last for up to 6 to 8 years. Longevity, efficient energy consumption, and economy are the sectors the integrated lithium ion solar lights are unbeatable. Some Sites Where You Can Use the Integrated Solar Street Lights These lights offer so many features. But, the question about their application is still a common one. You can use them on university roads, highways, large business buildings, governmental offices, or even in recreational areas. Humans need light to see. So you can install it at any place which endures a human passage. Summing Up! Now you know the real gems about integrated lithium ion solar lights. And with that information successfully communicated, we conclude our post on what is integrated solar street light. But before we play the ending song, let's review what we learned. Integrated solar street lights are a new technology acing the electrical industry with their ease and economy. They are different from their split siblings in many ways. You also saw how their components are different from the split ones. Lastly, we named a few sites for their application. If this post was helpful, let us know in the comments!
Solar Lights Market Report: Overview, drivers and challenges
Solar Lights Market Report: Overview, drivers and challenges
Solar Lights Market Report: Overview, drivers and challengesThe solar lighting industry is booming as the demands for green energy and urbanization are increasing. Main products in the market include solar garden lights, solar street lights, solar wall lights, etc. To help understand the whole industry, LumusSolem will first provide an overview of the solar lighting industry, then the global market by region and application, and finally go to the drivers and challenges of the market.With the continuous development of the economy and the fast consumption of energy, the world realizes the importance of saving energy and the pollution caused by traditional energy. To deal with this situation, people are looking for green and renewable energy to replace traditional energy. Compared with petroleum energy, solar energy is inexhaustible, and relevant technologies have gradually improved. Solar energy has abundant reserves and universal existence with no pollution and convenient access. Therefore, the development of the photovoltaic industry is accelerating and becoming a new energy development trend.Photovoltaic power generation can directly convert light energy into electricity. At this stage, it has a wide range of applications in solar lighting. The development of urbanization and smart city projects in countries such as the U.S., Germany, China, and India has driven the demand for solar lighting, which attracts a lot of players to invest in the R&D and promotion of solar lighting products. The report Global Solar Lighting Systems Industry estimates that the global solar lighting market will reach $15.1 Billion by 2027. Moreover, in 2020, the worldwide outdoor solar LED market was estimated to be worth USD 4.36 billion. From 2021 to 2028, it is predicted to rise at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 24.6 percent. In terms of application, solar LED street lights dominated the market in 2020, accounting for more than 50% of total revenue. And the tendency is expected to continue. The demand for gardening applications is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 25.0 percent. The segment's expansion has been aided by the availability of a wide selection of solar garden LED products at an inexpensive price point, a trend that is thought to continue in the coming years. Markets by regionToday, demands for solar lights are huge in North America, Europe, and Asia. In 2021, the solar lighting systems market in the United States is expected to be worth US$1.3 billion, accounting for 23.08% of the global market. China, the world's second-largest economy, is expected to reach a market size of US$2.6 billion in 2026, representing a 15.2% CAGR over the analyzed period. Japan and Canada are two more important geographic markets, with a forecast growth rate of 9.9% and 10.4%, respectively. Within Europe, Germany will develop at a CAGR of around 11.3%, while the rest of the European market will reach US$3.1 billion by the end of 2026.Markets by applicationConsidering the application, solar street lights and solar garden lights take up important parts of the whole market. The following is the introduction of these two specific markets. Solar street lightsWith remarkable advantages such as energy savings, high efficiency, ease of maintenance, and environmental preservation, solar street lighting is regarded as an exciting choice for supporting outdoor infrastructure, especially off-grid solar street lighting systems. For places without access to the power grid, integrated solar street light is an ideal solution. Bangladesh, Indonesia, Tanzania, India, Cambodia, Kenya, and Ethiopia are among the developing countries that are progressively investing in these integrated systems. Solar garden lightsSolar garden lights are becoming popular in developing regions as an alternative for naturally powered lights. Applications can be seen in places such as residential, commercial, and industrial properties. The demands of solar garden lights in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific are huge. The Middle East and African regions will provide the potential for the products.Next, this article will specify the drivers and constraints in the solar lighting industry.Market driversThe growing need for solar lights comes from rising environmental crisis and pollution, increasing use of renewable energy, and rising demand from developing regions. Solar lights are eco-friendly, cost-effective, and require little maintenance. Solar energy is regarded as one of the most effective renewable energy sources and many countries are actively encouraging individuals and businesses to invest in solar.Here are three main drivers for the solar lights market:1. Rising energy consumption and pollution: The fast development of society leads to high consumption of energy and thus huge environmental pollution. In contrast to exhaustible fossil fuels, solar energy is green, renewable, and accessible. Therefore, the global solar lighting market is expected to be driven by a rise in demand for reliable, cost-effective, and eco-friendly lighting solutions in the residential and commercial sectors. 2. Decreasing cost of components: The innovation and development of technology have provided solar lights with higher quality, longer user life, more decorative designs, and also cheaper prices. Technology innovations such as solar tracking mounts and thin-film technology are expected to increase the adoption of solar lights in the future.3. Beneficial government policies: Many countries have launched many policies and set up demonstration projects to support solar industry development. For example, the U.S. conducted The Million Solar Roofs Initiative and LA LED Street Lighting Retrofit Project. Japan provides subsidiaries for individuals who choose home use solar power systems. Smart city projects are also popular in countries such as the U.S., Germany, China, and India, which drives the demand for solar lights. Besides, the worldwide solar LED lighting market is likely to benefit from a shift in the adoption of renewable technologies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Regulators in the European Union, for example, want to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to 1990. Besides the above three factors, off-grid solar lighting technology also brings potentials to the market. Firstly, grid penetration requires a lot of investment including money and time, which is costly for developing countries or regions. Therefore, the demand for off-grid lighting is increasing. Secondly, kerosene, which is the major alternative in developing regions to off-grid lighting, has always been expensive and is expected to increase in price. Market challengesThere are some constraints and challenges in the market. The pandemic, technology, and weather dependence are the main factors that hamper the growth of the solar lights industry.The biggest challenge in these days and near future must be the impact of COVID-19. The pandemic has greatly affected the global economy. It impacts production and demand, leads to supply chain and market disruption, and has a financial impact on companies and financial markets. Uncertain corporate finances will also influence industry growth.The second challenge is solar power efficiency. At present, the average efficiency of solar panels is only 17% to 19%, which means that around 81% to 83% of solar energy is going to waste. Therefore, improving solar energy efficiency has been a tough task for experts. If solar energy can be used more efficiently, then the costs and prices of solar lights will go down.Another concern is that solar lighting products are reliable to the weather condition. Though solar power is accessible everywhere theoretically, some places do not have enough sunlight hours in the daytime. Solar lights usually cannot work well if they come across continuous rainy or cloudy days and could not receive enough solar energy. Furthermore, the solar lighting business is under pressure to limit pricing and margins due to severe competition, high starting costs, and low-cost replacements. Companies in the industry are facing fierce worldwide competition. Some consumers cannot afford the high starting costs. And the low cost of substitutes in end markets also constrains the price for modules and system installation. ConclusionAbove all, this article introduces the basic situation of the solar lighting industry. We hope it can help you understand the solar lights industry. If you are looking for reliable solar lights providers, LumusSolem will be your ideal choice! We provide various solar lighting products, including solar street lights, solar flood lights, solar lawn lights, solar string lights, solar ceiling lights, solar pool lights, and solar mosquito repellent lights, and so on. We welcome you to visit our website or contact us for more information!
LumusSolem Solar Lights Introduction 2021: The Definitive Guide
LumusSolem Solar Lights Introduction 2021: The Definitive Guide
Solar Lights Introduction 2021: The Definitive Guide Since the invention of modern solar cells in 1954, solar power had been expensive for many years, but now it has become affordable for domestic use. Our satellites are solar-powered, so are homes, toys, and outdoor lighting. Importantly, solar power brings light to people in the world who live without electricity. This article will provide you a complete guide to solar lights, including what solar light is, how solar lights work, how to choose solar lights, etc. What is solar light? According to Wikipedia, a solar light refers to “a lighting system composed of a LED lamp, solar panels, battery, charge controller and there may also be an inverter.” It can also be called solar lamp or solar lantern. How do solar lights work? Unlike conventional lights, solar lights draw power from the sun rather than electricity. Among the components of solar lights, the solar panel captures and converts sunlight into electricity with the photovoltaic effect. Then the electricity will be stored in the battery and used later. When the night comes, the light will be turned on by the controller. However, solar lights are dependent on geographic and climate conditions. If there is no enough sunlight, it will affect the illumination and the working hours of the lights. To solve this problem , LumusSolem invented a self-adaptive solar lighting system LS. It ensures high charge and discharge efficiency by tracking the voltage and battery storage so that the solar lights can work under extreme weather conditions. What types of solar lights are available? Despite that all solar lights have similar working principles, they serve different purposes. There are two main types of solar lights: outdoor solar lights and indoor solar lights. Outdoor solar lights and indoor solar lights can be also be classified into many types. Home lighting , signal lights, and lawn lights are just some examples. Here this article will introduce some common solar light types. Solar spot lights Solar spotlights can be different in brightness and size. They can be placed on corners to illuminate any focal points such as plants and statues. LumusSolem solar spotlights provide an option to change the light color through a mobile app. Solar flood lights Solar floodlights are wide beam lights designed to flood an area with light. These lights offer high brightness and cover a wide area, perfect for illuminating driveways, gardens, parking lots, etc. Solar string lights Solar string lights are decorative and cost-effective. LumusSolem provides many designs that can be wrapped on the trees or placed on the ground. Solar fence lights The name of this kind of light comes from the fact that they are placed on the fence. Solar fence lights can create a wonderful ambience near the fenced area. Solar walkway lights Solar walkway lights, also known as solar pathway lights, can light up the walkway and make it safe and bright. They are easy to install, attractive, and cost-efficient. Solar lawn lights This kind of solar light usually has many designs such as flower lights, mushroom lights, and ball lights. The solar-powered lawn lights are suitable for the decoration of grass and lawns in residential homes and commercial properties. Solar street lights Solar street lights are usually independent of the utility grid, wireless, affordable, and energy-efficient. They are ideal for neighborhoods, communities, and cities. LumusSolem can provide customized service, including the layout and the installation guidance, for solar street lights. Solar wall lights Solar wall lights are a good way to light the properties without complicated and expensive electrical work. What you need to do is install your solar wall light in a location that gets good sunlight and enjoy years of maintenance-free solar lighting. They are not only important for outdoor uses but also invaluable in emergencies. Solar camping lights These lights are popular among campers and outdoor enthusiasts. They are usually very bright, long-lasting, and quick charging. Solar shed lights Solar lights for sheds are a good choice for homeowners to reduce electricity bills. These lights are usually connected to motion sensors so that they can light up when someone enters the shed. Besides the above solar lights, LumusSolem also provides other types of solar lights, including Solar garden lights, Solar pool lights, Solar ceiling lights, and Solar mosquito repellent lights. You can visit LumusSolem for more information. What are the benefits of solar lights? Using solar lights has numerous benefits, including: Solar lights are environmentally friendly. As mentioned above, the energy of solar lamps comes from the sunlight, which can reduce carbon footprint and protect the environment. Solar lights are cost-effective. It costs little to install solar lights in contrast with traditional ones. There is no need to trench in traditional grid power and no underground conduit running to the lamps. Moreover, using solar lights can save electricity bills. Solar lights are maintenance-free. Solar lighting systems are quite easy to be maintained. Except for some check-ups and cleanings, nothing else will be required to ensure the proper use of solar lighting. Even solar panels do not need frequent cleanings if the lighting systems are installed properly. Solar energy is unlimited. Solar energy is inexhaustible. As long as there is some sunlight, solar lights can operate well, which can bring lighting to every corner of the world. Solar lights are available in many designs. Today solar lights have numerous types, shapes, and sizes, which can fulfill the needs for lighting functions and aesthetics. With so many advantages, just make up your mind to pick solar lights to light up your house. To satisfy all your needs, LumusSolum offers customized services. You will not be disappointed. What factors should be considered in choosing solar lights? Here are some factors that you should consider before buying a solar light: 1. Types of solar lighting. The first thing that you should consider is deciding the type of solar lights that you want to buy. 2. The quality of solar panels and the size of LED bulbs. The operation of the solar lighting system depends on the quality of solar panels and the size of LED bulbs. If the place you want to light up is huge, then you need high -quality solar panels and larger LED solar bulbs. 3. Working time. The working hours of lights are different from several hours to 12 hours or even more. Therefore, keep in mind to check whether the active time meets your need before making a buying decision. 4. Charging times. Charging times will be ranged from 6 to 8 hours. It would be better if the lights require fewer charging hours. 5. Lumen output. The lumens show how bright the lamp will be. And different lights have different lumens. For example, decorative solar lights have an output below 30 lumens, while floodlights have 1500 lumens or higher. 6. Location. Some lights can be placed on the wall while some can be only installed on the ground. Therefore, before buying solar lights, you should check whether the lights can be installed in the place you need. 7. Weather. If the place you live in has long rainy days, then you should consider the waterproof function of the lights and the quality of the lighting system. Also, choose lamps with long-lasting batteries. Still have problems with choosing solar lights? Contact LumusSolem. We are happy to answer your questions. Key players in the market The rising demand for renewable energy is boosting the global market of solar lights. Famous brands in the global solar lighting market include Signify, Jiawei, SEPCO, Greenshine, SOKOYO, Clear Blue, etc. When wondering which brand to choose, you can pick the above brands or consider LumusSolem. LumusSolem has been in the solar lighting industry for over ten years and has been the provider in many big projects, including the solar street lights in Yanqing Zone of Bejing 2022 Winter Olympics. Our products and services will surprise you! Final words. Above all, we believe you now have an understanding of solar lights. If you are looking for reliable solar lighting suppliers, LumusSolem can be your good choice!
Outdoor solar lights' photovoltaic effect and characterization parameters
Outdoor solar lights' photovoltaic effect and characterization parameters
Outdoor solar light's photovoltaic effect According to the conductivity, objects can be roughly divided into conductors, semiconductors and insulators. The effect of a beam of solar light on semiconductors is very different from that on other objects. There are many free electrons in metals, and the change of electrical conductivity caused by solar light can be completely ignored; The insulator can not excite more electrons to participate in conduction at very high temperature; The binding force of semiconductor with conductivity between metal and insulator on electrons in the body is far less than that of insulator. The photon energy of visible solar light can excite it from binding to free conductive state, which is the photoelectric effect of semiconductor. When there is an electric field in the local area of the semiconductor, the photogenerated carriers will accumulate, which is very different from that without an electric field. The photoelectric voltage will be generated on both sides of the electric field due to charge accumulation, which is the photogenerated volt effect, referred to as photovoltaic effect. Let's talk about semiconductors in detail. Pure semiconductor materials are called intrinsic semiconductors. When v-group impurity elements (phosphorus, arsenic, etc.) are doped into the intrinsic semiconductor material, and the impurity provides electrons so that the electron concentration is greater than the hole concentration, n-type semiconductor material is formed, and the impurity is called donor; At this time, the electron concentration is greater than the hole concentration, which is the majority carrier, while the hole concentration is lower, which is the minority carrier. Similarly, group III impurity elements (boron, etc.) are doped into the semiconductor material, so that the hole concentration is greater than the electron concentration, and the crystalline silicon becomes a p-type semiconductor. For example, taking silicon as an example, adding a little boron, aluminum, gallium and other impurities into high-purity silicon is a p-type semiconductor; Adding a little phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and other impurities is n-type semiconductor. In n-type semiconductors, nonequilibrium electrons are called nonequilibrium majority carriers, and nonequilibrium holes are called nonequilibrium minority carriers. The opposite is true for p-type semiconductors. In semiconductor devices, nonequilibrium minority carriers often play an important role. Both n-type semiconductor materials and p-type semiconductor materials are electrically neutral when they exist independently. The charge of ionized impurities is equal to the total charge of carriers. When two kinds of semiconductor materials are connected together, for n-type semiconductor materials, electrons are most carriers with high concentration; In p-type semiconductors, electrons are minority carriers with low concentration. Due to the existence of concentration gradient, electrical diffusion is bound to occur, that is, electrons diffuse from high concentration n-type semiconductor material to low concentration p-type semiconductor material, and a PN junction is formed at the interface between n-type semiconductor and p-type semiconductor. Near the PN junction interface, the electron concentration in the n-type semiconductor gradually decreases, while the electrons diffused into the p-type semiconductor compound with most carrier holes and disappear. Therefore, near the interface of the n-type semiconductor, due to the decrease of most carrier electron concentration, the number of positive charges of ionized impurities is higher than the remaining electron concentration, and a positive charge region appears. Similarly, in p-type semiconductors, due to the diffusion of holes from p-type semiconductors to n-type semiconductors, the number of negative charges of ionized impurities near the interface is higher than the remaining hole concentration, and a negative charge region appears. This positive and negative charge region is called the space charge region of PN junction, forming an electric field from n-type semiconductor to p-type semiconductor, which is called built-in electric field, also known as barrier electric field. Because the resistance here is particularly high, it is also called barrier layer. This electric field resists the diffusion of multipons in the two regions and helps the drift of minority electrons until the diffusion current reaches equilibrium when it is equal to the drift current, and a stable built-in electric field is established on both sides of the interface. The so-called diffusion means that under the influence of an external electric field, a randomly moving free electron has an accelerated motion in the direction opposite to the electric field, and its velocity increases continuously with time. In addition to drift motion, carriers in semiconductors can also flow due to diffusion. When any particles, such as gas molecules, are too concentrated, they will disperse themselves if they are not limited. The basic reason for this phenomenon is the irregular thermal motion of these particles. With the progress of diffusion, the space charge region is widened and the internal electric field is enhanced. Because the role of the internal electric field is to hinder the multi son diffusion and promote the minority son drift, when the diffusion motion and drift motion reach a dynamic balance, a stable PN junction will be formed. The PN junction is very thin with few electrons and holes, but there are positively charged ions near the n-type side and negatively charged ions near the p-type side. Due to the lack of carriers in the space charge region, PN junction is also called depletion layer region. When the semiconductor with PN junction is illuminated, the number of electrons and holes increases. Under the action of the local electric field of the junction, the electrons in P region move to n region and the holes in N region move to p region. In this way, there is charge accumulation at both ends of the junction and a potential difference is formed. The cell that directly converts light energy into electric energy by using photovoltaic effect is called solar cell (solar cell for short). The so-called photovoltaic effect is the phenomenon that electromotive force is generated at both ends after the system absorbs light energy when light of appropriate wavelength is irradiated on the semiconductor. When the PN junction is illuminated, both the intrinsic and extrinsic absorption of photons will produce photogenerated carriers, but only a few carriers excited by the intrinsic absorption can cause the photovoltaic effect. Because the photogenerated holes in the p region and the photogenerated electrons in the N region belong to multipons, they are blocked by the potential barrier and cannot cross the junction. Only the photogenerated electrons in the p region and the photogenerated holes in the N region and the electron hole pair (minority) in the junction region can drift through the junction under the action of the built-in electric field when they diffuse near the junction electric field. Photogenerated electrons are pulled to n region and photogenerated holes are pulled to p region, that is, electron hole pairs are separated by built-in electric field. This leads to the accumulation of photogenerated electrons near the boundary of N region and photogenerated holes near the boundary of P region. They generate a photogenerated electric field opposite to the built-in electric field of the thermal equilibrium PN junction, and its direction is from P region to n region. This electric field reduces the potential barrier, that is, the photogenerated potential difference, p-terminal positive and N-terminal negative. Therefore, the junction current flows from P region to n region, and its direction is opposite to the photogenerated current. In fact, not all the generated photogenerated carriers contribute to the photogenerated current. Set n-zone hollow hole in service lifeτpThe time diffusion distance of P isLp, and the lifetime of electrons in P region isτpThe time diffusion distance of n isLn.Ln+Lp=Lis much larger than the width of the PN junction itself, so it can be considered that the photogenerated carriers generated within the average diffusion distance l near the junction contribute to the photogenerated current, while the electron hole pairs whose positions are more than l away from the junction region will all compound in the diffusion process and have no contribution to the photoelectric effect of the PN junction. In order to understand the above process, the following briefly introduces the concepts of download stream lifetime, mobility and diffusion length. Carrier lifetime refers to the average lifetime of nonequilibrium carriers before recombination, which is the abbreviation of nonequilibrium carrier lifetime. In the case of thermal equilibrium, the generation rate of electrons and holes is equal to the recombination rate, and their concentrations maintain equilibrium. Under the action of external conditions (such as solar light), additional non-equilibrium carriers, namely electron hole pairs, will be generated; After the external conditions are cancelled, because the recombination rate is greater than the generation rate, the non-equilibrium carriers will gradually disappear and return to the thermal equilibrium state. The decay law of nonequilibrium carrier concentration with time generally obeys the exponential relationship. In semiconductor devices, the nonequilibrium minority carrier lifetime is called minority carrier lifetime for short. The recombination process can be roughly divided into two types: the direct transition of electrons between the conduction band and the valence band, resulting in the disappearance of a pair of electron holes, which is called direct recombination; Electron hole pairs may also be combined through the energy level in the forbidden band (in recombination), which is called indirect recombination. The minority carrier lifetime of each semiconductor is not a fixed value, it will vary greatly with the chemical composition and crystal structure. Mobility refers to the average drift velocity of carriers (electrons and holes) under the action of unit electric field, that is, a measure of the velocity of carriers under the action of electric field. The faster they move, the greater the mobility; Slow movement and low mobility. In the same semiconductor material, the mobility of different carrier types is also different. Generally, the mobility of electrons is higher than that of holes. Under the action of a constant electric field, the average drift velocity of carriers can only take a certain value, which means that carriers in semiconductors are not accelerated without any resistance. In fact, in the process of its thermal movement, carriers constantly collide with lattice, impurities and defects, and change their movement direction irregularly, that is, scattering occurs. Inorganic crystals are not ideal crystals, while organic semiconductors are essentially amorphous, so there are lattice scattering and ionized impurity scattering, so the carrier mobility can only have a certain value. Because minority carriers have a certain lifetime, that is, minority carrier lifetime. Therefore, in the process of diffusion, the minority carriers will diffuse and compound at the same time. After a certain distance, the minority carriers will disappear, which is the so-called diffusion length. Solar light absorption of semiconductors. The absorption of solar light by semiconductors is mainly determined by the band gap of semiconductor materials. For semiconductors with a certain band gap, low-energy photons with low frequency have a small degree of light absorption, and most of the light can penetrate; As the frequency increases, the ability to absorb light increases sharply. In fact, the light absorption of semiconductors is determined by various factors. Here, only the transition between electron energy bands used in solar cells is considered. Generally, the wider the band gap, the smaller the absorption coefficient of a certain wavelength. In addition, the absorption of light also depends on the density of states of conduction band and valence band. When different types of semiconductors are in contact (forming PN junctions) or semiconductors are in contact with metals, diffusion occurs due to the concentration difference of electrons (or holes) and a potential barrier is formed at the contact. Therefore, this kind of contact has single conductivity. Using the unidirectional conductivity of PN junction, semiconductor devices with different functions can be made, such as diode, triode, thyristor and so on. PN junction also has many other important basic properties, including current voltage characteristics, capacitance effect, tunnel effect, avalanche effect, switching characteristics and photovoltaic effect. Current voltage characteristics, also known as rectifier characteristics or volt ampere characteristics, are the most basic characteristics of PN junction, while solar photoelectric conversion is the photovoltaic effect generated by the built-in electric field of PN junction. Characterization parameters of solar cells The working principle of solar cells is based on photovoltaic effect. When light irradiates the solar cell, a photogenerated current IPH from n region to p region will be generated. At the same time, due to the characteristics of PN junction diode, there is a forward diode currentID, which is opposite to the photogenerated current from P region to n region. Therefore, the actually obtained current I is I = Iph- ID= Iph- I0[exp(qUD/nkBT)-1] Where,UDis the junction voltage;I0is the reverse saturation current of the diode;Iphis a photogenerated current proportional to the intensity of incident light, and its proportional coefficient is determined by the structure and material characteristics of solar cells; N is the ideal coefficient (n value), which is a parameter representing the characteristics of PN junction, usually between 1 and 2; Q is the electron charge;kBis Boltzmann constant; T is the temperature. If the series resistanceRSof the solar cell is ignored,UDis the terminal voltage U of the solar cell, then I = Iph- I0[exp(qU/nkBT)-1] When the output end of the solar cell is short circuited, U= 0 (UD≈ 0), the short-circuit current can be obtained from the formula Isc=Iph In short, the short-circuit current is the maximum current measured when the solar cell is short circuited from the outside, expressed inIsc. It is the maximum current that the photocell can get in the external circuit under a certain light intensity. Without considering other losses, the short-circuit current of the solar cell is equal to the photogenerated currentIph, which is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident light. When the output terminal of the solar cell is open circuit, I = 0, and the open circuit voltage can be obtained from the formula Uoc=nkBT/q*In(Isc/I0+1) Simply put, the open circuit voltage means that the illuminated solar cell is in the open circuit state, and the photogenerated carriers can only accumulate at both ends of the PN junction to generate the photogenerated electromotive force. At this time, the potential difference measured at both ends of the solar cell is represented by the symbolUoc. When the solar cell is connected to load R, load R can range from zero to infinity. When the loadRmmaximizes the power output of the solar cell, its corresponding maximum powerPmis Pm=ImUm WhereImandUmare the optimum working current and the optimum working voltage respectively. When the solar cell is connected to the load, a current flows through the load, which is called the working current of the solar cell, also known as load current or output current. The voltage at both ends of the load is called the working voltage of the solar cell. The working voltage and current of the solar cell change with the load resistance. The volt ampere characteristic curve of the solar cell can be obtained by making a curve of the working voltage and current corresponding to different resistance values. If the selected load resistance value can maximize the product of output voltage and current, the maximum output power is obtained, which is represented by the symbolPmax. The working voltage and current at this time are called the optimal working voltage and optimal working current, which are represented by symbolsUmpandImprespectively. The ratio of the maximum powerPmto the product ofUOCandISCis defined as the filling factor FF, then FF=Pm/UOCISC=UmIm/UOCISC FF is an important characterization parameter of solar cell. The larger the FF, the higher the output power. FF depends on the incident light intensity, the band gap width of the material, the ideal coefficient, series resistance and parallel resistance. Fill factor FF is an important parameter to measure the output characteristics of solar cells. It is the ratio of the maximum output power to the product of open circuit voltage and short circuit current. It represents the maximum power output of the solar cell with the best load. The greater its value, the greater the output power of the solar cell. The value of FF is always less than 1, which can be given by the following empirical formula FF=UOC-In(UOC+0.72)/UOC+1 WhereUOCis the normalized open circuit voltage. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of a solar cell refers to the maximum energy conversion efficiency when the optimal load resistance is connected to the external circuit, which is equal to the ratio of the output power of the solar cell to the energy incident on the surface of the solar cell. The conversion efficiency of photocell to convert light energy directly into useful electric energy is an important parameter to judge the battery quality η express η=Pmax/Pm=ImpUmp/Pm=ImpUmp/FFUOCISC That is, the ratio of the maximum output power of the battery to the incident light power.
Solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories
Solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories
The main points of consideration for small hardware of solar outdoor lights are rust resistance, strength, thickness, aesthetics, whether or not to lose paint, and several other points. Because the solar lights are used outdoors, so the hardware must have good rust resistance, the industry is now commonly used steel pipe is welded with a black pipe after painting, screws are commonly used iron nickel-plated, basically can not pass the 24h salt test. The thickness of the U-shaped bracket, like the head of the floodlight, must be sufficient to use a hot-rolled galvanized sheet for punching holes and then spray paint. Toothbrush journey light as a representative of the small journey light with the arm must first be thick enough, followed by the floor position must be full welding, welding seams thick enough and strong enough, the thickness of the base plate should also be sufficient. The support arm to pass the salt spray test must be selected galvanized steel pipe and spray paint after welding. Salt spray test methods and determination criteria. 1. General Provisions of solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories 1.1 Purpose To standardize the main method and judgment criteria of the buckling salt spray test (NSS) for metal structural parts. 1.2 Application The specification applies to all metal structural parts, solid parts, electrical parts, and other company's test methods and judgment standards. 1.3 Responsibilities The head of the quality department is responsible for the preparation of test reports and determination of test results, and IQC is responsible for the testing of products. 1.4 Implementation The official implementation of the document control controlled issue date. 2. Reference standardof solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories 2.1 GB/T2423.17-1993 basic environmental test procedures for electrical and electronic products Test Ka: salt spray test method. 2.2 GB/T6461-2002 rating of metal and other inorganic coverings on the metal base body after corrosion testing of the type and specimen. 3. Test equipment for solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories The test equipment required for the spray intermediate, brine bucket, test piece support frame, spray liquid collection solver, brine replenishment bucket, pressure bucket, compressed air supply equipment, and exhaust equipment, etc., and following the following conditions test. 3.1 The spray nozzle shall not directly spray the test solution to the specimen, and the solution at the top of the spray chamber shall not drip down on the specimen. 3.2 The test liquid dripping from the specimen shall not be used again for the test. 3.3 compressed air must not have grease and dust, there must be an air cleaner; air pressure must be maintained at 1.0 ± 0.1kgf/cm2 preheat to increase the temperature and humidity of compressed air. (3) f.nk23aT!R4P12265033.5 spray level to take an area of 80 cm2, diameter of about 10 cm, placed near the specimen. 3.4 The amount of spray solution to the entire hour, in the collection capacity, should be an average of 1.6 ml of saline solution that can be collected per hour. Spray afLGV4T-eWVh1xP122650 solution should be collected continuously for at least 8 hours, the average value of which indicates the amount of spray; 6SQ blog space hT(m_x007_(_x0019_-jNiD). 3.5 The test brine bucket its sodium chloride solution concentration should be maintained at 40-60g/l. 4. Test conditions of solar outdoor lights' hardware accessories 4.1, test solution The test solution uses sodium chloride and distilled water, the concentration of which is (5 ± 0.1%) (mass percentage), the collection solution after atomization, in addition to the baffle block back part, shall not be reused. 4.2, solution PH value The PH value of the salt deep liquid before atomization is between 6. 5-7. 2 (35±2°C). 4.3 The temperature in the laboratory (refers to the temperature inside the chamber) 35±2°C. 4.4 Temperature inside the saturated pressure drum 47±1°C. 4.5 Saturated barrel pressure 1Kgf. 4.6 Spray volume At any position in the working space, the amount of salt spray deposition of continuous atomization for 8his collected by a funnel with an area of 80cm2, and an average of 1.6mL of solution should be collected per hour. 4.7 Continuous atomization time. Note: If the product is used in a harsher environment, the continuous atomization time should be extended appropriately, according to the product specifications required atomization time for the test; if there are no special requirements or requirements lower than this specification will be implemented following this specification. If the commitment letter provided by the supplier, salt spray test report, and other information reflected in the continuous atomization time is more severe than this specification, the test will be conducted according to the atomization time provided by the supplier, otherwise, the specification will be implemented. 5. Outdoor Solar Lights' Hardware Accessories Placement of the test piece 5.1 The tested surface of the specimen should not be sprayed directly with salt spray. 5.2 The test surface in the test chamber is very important to place the angle. A flat sample of the test surface facing up and with the heavy straight direction into 20 5 of the angle; for the surface irregularities of the test piece, can take a variety of placement states so that each major surface can simultaneously accept the spray of saltwater. 5.3 The test piece should be arranged so that the spray is free to fall all over the surface of the test piece and should not prevent the spray from falling freely. 5.4 The specimens shall not come into contact with each other or with metallic conductors or substances with capillary phenomena, and other objects outside the holder. 5.5 Salt solution is prohibited from dripping from one specimen to the surface of other specimens. 5.6 Test piece has an identifying mark sticky towel object, should be placed under the test piece as far as possible. 5.7 For a new test or a total test specimen more than 48 on the test, the tested specimen may be allowed to be shifted. In this case, the frequency of the number of shifts is to be determined by the operator but needs to be indicated in the test report. 5.8 The holder of the specimen should be made of inert non-metallic materials, such as glass, plastic, or coated wood products. The material used to hang the specimen should not use metal materials, but man-made fibers, cotton fibers, or other inert insulating materials. 6.Outdoor Solar-powered Lights Hardware Accessories Initial testing of the specimen 6.1 Appearance structural inspection The surface of the test specimen must be clean and free of oil, damage, temporary protective layer, and other maladies. 6.2 Electrical performance inspection If the test is carried out on the whole of electronic and electrical products, the electrical performance must be inspected before the test, and test data must be recorded. 7.OutdoorSolar Lights' Hardware Accessories Pre-treatment of test pieces 7.1 The test sample must be carefully cleaned before the test, as far as possible to remove miscellaneous rolls (dust, oil, or other impurities). The cleaning method used should depend on the nature of the test piece material, the test piece surface, and dirt cleaning, should not use abrasive materials or solvents that may erode the surface of the sample. 7.1.1 Use a suitable organic solvent (the boiling point between 60-120 ° C) hydrocarbons) and a clean soft brush or ultrasonic cleaning device to thoroughly clean the sample being tested. After cleaning, rinse the specimen with a fresh solvent and dry. 7.1.2 The cleaned sample shall be protected from re-contamination by inadvertent touching. 7.1.3 the test should not be cleaned off before the test is intentionally coated with a protective organic film layer of the specimen 7.2 If the specimen is cut from a larger work with a coating, the covering layer in the vicinity of the cut area shall not be damaged. Unless otherwise specified, the cutting area must be protected by an appropriate covering layer that is stable under the test conditions, such as paint, paraffin, or tape. 8. Test procedure ofOutdoorSolar Lights' Hardware Accessories 8.1 According to the test conditions to configure the salt solution and according to the specimen placement requirements to place the tested sample, turn on the power switch of the salt spray test chamber, the chamber, and pressure starvation and barrel into the heating phase. 8.2 After the temperature meets the temperature range required by the test conditions, turn on the spray switch and check whether the spray pressure is maintained at 1Kgf; 8.3 Set the timer according to the continuous atomization time requirement and turn on the switch of the timer, after the set spraying time is satisfied, the spraying will be stopped automatically. 8.4 After the test, first turn off the spray switch and then turn on the defogging switch to defog for about 20 minutes. 8.5 After the temperature inside the box is removed, close all switches of the equipment, and then you can open the door to take out the specimen. 8.6 During the test, if there is no special requirement, it is prohibited to open the door of the box on the way. 8.7 in the spray state, is strictly prohibited at the same time when the airline defogging, because due to airflow reversal may damage the equipment. 8.8 box of salt service gas inside the box is not clean, prohibit the opening of the box door to prevent the leakage of salt spray gas and other equipment around the box to create corrosion. 8.9 after the spray test, the specimen in the box is not allowed to stay longer than 30 minutes, so as not to stay too long and affect the test results. 9. After the completion of the test specimen processing After the completion of the salt spray test, the test piece will be removed from the salt spray box, to reduce corrosion products off, the sample should be cleaned in the indoor air before natural drying 0.5-1h; then clean flowing water with a temperature of not more than 35 ° C will be carefully cleaned to remove the residual salt spray solution on the surface of the sample, followed by 30 cm from the sample at a pressure of not more than 200Kpa air blowing dry. 10. Final test of SolarOutdoor Lights' Hardware Accessories 10.1 Appearance after the test Check the appearance of defects, such as pitting, open lines, bubbles, and other distribution and numbers. 10.2 Electrical performance inspection. If it is an electronic and electrical product as a whole for the test, the electrical performance needs to be tested after the test to check whether the electrical specifications are consistent with those before the test. 11. Rating and determination of test results Our company uses GB/T6461-2002 "metal and other inorganic coverings on the metal base body after the test of the rating of the specimens and specimens" developed by the corrosion area for the rating method. 11.1 Rating calculation formula The corrosion rating of a metal coating is obtained based on the percentage of the total area occupied by corrosion defects, calculated according to the following formula: Rp = 3 (2 - LogA) Where Rp - corrosion rating, rounded to the nearest integer, as shown in the following table: A - The percentage of the total area occupied by the corrosion of the body metal. B - According to the above formula, the relationship between the area of corrosion defects and corrosion rating can be derived. Remarks: 1. For samples with very small defect area (such as less than 0.046%), if calculated according to the above formula, the rating will be greater than 10, so the above formula is only applicable to samples with a 0.046%; 2. In some cases, it may be difficult to calculate the accurate area, especially for deep processed samples, such as thread, hole, etc. in this case, the inspector should estimate the area as accurately as possible. 3. For SECC (galvanized steel sheet), when calculating the defect area, the notch of the specimen can be taken into account. 4. When calculating the defect area, the "total area" refers to the test area covered by the spray in the box, and the area not covered by other items is not included. 11.2 Test result determination a, Rp = 10 test results can be directly through b. Test results with Rp=7-9 can be conceded to receive if there is no special mark from users. c, Rp = 3-6 test results, the need for the relevant functional departments to assess, and then judged according to the results of the assessment. d. Test results with Rp=0-2 are judged as unqualified.
About the Light Source of Solar Lights
About the Light Source of Solar Lights
How much do you know about the light source of solar lights? Here are some FAQs to help you know more about solar outdoor lights. 1. What is LED? Led is taken from the abbreviation of Light Emitting Diode three words, the Chinese translation is "light-emitting diode", as the name suggests, the light-emitting diode is a kind of electronic device can be converted into light energy has the characteristics of a diode. 2. What is the basic structure of LED? The basic structure of LED is a piece of electroluminescent semiconductor material, placed on a lead frame, and then sealed around with epoxy resin, to protect the role of the internal core. 3. What is luminous flux? Point light source or non-point light source in the unit time of the energy emitted, which can produce visual people (people can feel the radiation flux) is called luminous flux. The unit of luminous flux is lumen (abbreviated lm), 1 lumen (lumen or lm) is defined as an international standard candlelight source in the unit stereo arc angle through the amount of luminous flux. 4. What is illuminance? It can be measured directly by an illuminance meter. The unit of illuminance is lux, which is the phonetic translation of lux in English and can also be written as lx. The illuminance of an object that is uniformly illuminated by light is 1 lux when the luminous flux obtained on 1 square area is 1 lumen. 5. Please explain the difference between luminous intensity and luminous brightness? Luminous intensity is referred to as luminous intensity, the international unit is candela (candela) abbreviated cd. LCD refers to the luminous flux emitted by the light source in the specified direction within the unit stereo angle. When the light source radiation is uniform, the luminous intensity is I = F/Ω, Ω is the stereo angle, the unit is the spherical degree (sr), F is the luminous flux, the unit is lumens, for point light source I = F / 4 or so. Luminosity indicates the brightness of the luminous surface, refers to the luminous intensity of the luminous surface in the specified direction and the ratio of the area of the luminous surface perpendicular to the specified direction, the unit is candela? square meters. For a full scattering surface, although the light intensity and luminous flux in all directions are different, but the brightness of each direction is equal. The fluorescent screen of the TV is approximate to such a full scattering surface, so the image viewed from all directions, have the same sense of brightness. 6. What does the color rendering index refer to? The degree to which the light source presents the object, that is, the degree of color fidelity. Often called the "color rendering index" unit: Ra. 7. luminous efficacy and wattage and lumens of light system? Luminous efficiency: the luminous flux emitted by the light source divided by the power of the light source. It is an important indicator to measure the energy efficiency of the light source. Unit: lumens per watt (lm/w). 8. What is the general color temperature of the solar street light? About 6500k 9. From the perspective of luminous flux and luminous efficiency, please explain why solar LED lights 10w brightness equivalent to the brightness of incandescent 100w? High luminous efficiency LED beads can now do 180LM/W incandescent lamp between 5-15LM/W The luminous flux of a 10w led is 1800LM, the highest luminous flux of a 100w incandescent lamp in 1500lm, so that a 10w led lamp is equivalent to a 100w incandescent lamp brightness. 10. Please combine the lithium battery voltage and the basic controller principle to explain why flat-pressure solar lights are suitable for low-voltage high luminous efficiency lamp beads? Take lithium iron phosphate battery as an example, because the voltage at 3.2v, the voltage is low, we know that the formation of current must have a pressure difference, the lower the voltage of the lamp beads and the higher the pressure difference between the battery, so that the formation of the current is also greater, the corresponding conversion of the battery's electrical energy into light energy efficiency is also higher. In other words, low-voltage lamp beads can improve the brightness of the lamp and the conversion efficiency of the battery.
LED Luminaire Structure of Solar Lights
LED Luminaire Structure of Solar Lights
LED light structure components (1) Fixed bracket: refers to the lamps and lanterns fixed to the building, can achieve the effect of support, adjust the angle, anti-theft, etc. Bracket material: aluminum, stainless steel, plastic, etc. (2) Luminaire shell: luminaire shell, play the role of carrying internal devices, modeling, protection, waterproof and dustproof, heat dissipation, easy to install, etc. Shell material: aluminum: strong texture, high grade, excellent heat dissipation performance, mainly for high-power lamps and lanterns and high-end decorative lamps. Weak electricity/ Support structure/ Non-support structure/ Connecting structure/ Strong electricity/ Weak electricity LED luminaire structure Power supply AC/DC conversion Light Emitting Component LED PCB Electronic component chip Driver circuit PC (control program) Software Fixing bracket Lamp housing Waterproof/sealed Light distribution components Cable Connections Plastic: light, brittle, resistant to oxidation and ultraviolet rays, cheap and easy to process. Mainly used for small power lamps and most of the contour lights. Stainless steel: only used for underwater lights Glass: light-transmitting parts, also plays three times the role of dimming (3) Waterproof / sealing: sealing the gap part of the shell, to achieve the waterproof requirements of the lamps, mainly using waterproof rubber, rubber and other gaskets. (4) Light distribution components: refers to the use of light distribution devices to adjust the output light angle to a certain value according to the effect requirements. Usually used: reflectors, spotlight panels, lenses, prismatic glass, etc. (5) The cable: used to connect the lamp power supply, signal outside the lead wire. Including power supply lines and signal lines. The main use of power cable types: according to the number of different cores generally have two-core line, three-core and four-core line. According to the use of the environment divided into outdoor special cable and indoor cable. (6) The connector: the device connected between the lamps and lanterns, mainly to connect the convenient operation, waterproof and other effects. Weakness (1) LED light source: mainly straw hat lamp beads (0.06W), 3528 (0.06W), 2835 (0.2/0.5/1W) 5730 (0.5W) 4014 (0.2W), 1W, 3W, integrated chip (10W, 30W, 50W) and other specifications. (2) PCB (printed circuit board): divided into aluminum and PP epoxy resin board. Aluminum substrate is mainly used with high-power lamps and lanterns, play a role in heat dissipation, more expensive. PP epoxy resin board is mainly used in small power lamps and lanterns, cheap. (3) Drive circuit: LED characteristics determine the need to drive the light source in a constant-current manner, especially high-power lamps and lanterns, must use constant-current drive electricity away. Role is to convert DC constant voltage electricity to DC constant current electricity, such as driving 1WLED need to use constant current driver to convert the input voltage to constant current 350mA input. Powerful electricity (1) Power supply: Direct power supply: AC220V in China, Europe, AC110V in the United States and Canada, AC100V in Japan, low-voltage constant-voltage power supply such as DC12V, DC24V, etc. Low-voltage constant-current power supply such as constant-current current 350mA/700mA, etc. Low-voltage AC power such as AC12V, AC24V, etc. Note: The voltage must be clearly handled before lighting the lamps, once connected wrongly, the lamps will be damaged. (2)AC/DC conversion: LED commonly used switching power supply. LED switching power supply is divided into: constant voltage switching power supply, constant current switching power supply. When using must be clear what power supply should be used for lamps.
Solar lights LED chip introduction
Solar lights LED chip introduction
Solar Light LED chip introduction 1.Solar light LED chip structureSolar light LED chips have two basic structures: horizontal structure and vertical structure. 2. Classification of Solar lights LED chipsLED chips pin type: There are two pins, generally used for low power.Advantages of LED chips: mature technology, reliable products, low cost, small size, wide application rangeDisadvantages of LED chips: The maximum current allowed to pass is small, the brightness is low, and there is no special heat dissipation design. The thermoelectric channels are completed through pins, and the heat dissipation performance is poor, and the lifespan is limited.The two electrodes of the horizontal structure LED chip are on the same side of the LED chip, and the current flows laterally in the n- and p-type confinement layers for unequal distances.The two electrodes of the vertical structure of the LED chip are on both sides of the LED epitaxial layer. Because the patterned electrode and all p-type confinement layers are used as the second electrode, almost all the current flows through the LED epitaxial layer vertically, and there is very little lateral flow. The current can improve the current distribution problem of the planar structure, improve the luminous efficiency, and also solve the shading problem of the p-pole, and increase the light-emitting area of ​​the LED. SMD LED chip package: Surface-mount diodes can meet the needs of various electronic products with surface-mount structures, but the power cannot be made large.Advantages: Good consistency, suitable for large-scale production, and can integrate multiple chips to obtain great power.Disadvantages: The heat is too concentrated and it is difficult to dissipate.Piranha led lights package: There are four pins, two are positive and two are negative, thermal conductivity is better than low power.Features: The LED bracket is made of copper with a large area and fast heat dissipation. It can be used for a long time. It is often used as a car brake light and turn signal.
Solar-powered Lights Stem Sex Assaults in Somalia
Solar-powered Lights Stem Sex Assaults in Somalia
MOGADISHU, Somalia Chatting women sitting outside makeshift homes at night is a new scene in a once-dark refugee camp in the Somali capital. In a city where darkness brings the threat of attack, recently installed solar lights are helping to ward off sexual assault. Women living in Mogadishu's hundreds of refugee camps often stay and don't use communal bathrooms at home at night because of the threat men armed with knives and guns pose to them. With the installation of 79 solar-powered lights by the Danish Refugee Council in a camp known as Zone K, life has returned to Mogadishu's nights."It feels like we are starting a new life," Sadiya Hussein, a mother of four, said while resting with other women on a sandy spot near their homes, which are made out of sheet metal or sticks and cloth. "Because of the lights we can come together to chat and get some fresh air. No rapist can sneak in now. It's fully lit and better." Trending News Debate Highlights Harris Defends Confronting Biden WATCH: Stonewall Riots Remembered Trump-Putin Meeting Since a devastating famine struck Somalia in 2011, refugee camps in Mogadishu have held tens of thousands of people fleeing both hunger and violence. The number of rapes rose sharply, making the simple act of going to the bathroom a life-risking activity."They simply came and waited for women between their house and bathrooms," said Fatima Nor, who said she was once attacked but escaped when her husband intervened. "We really feel a little bit safer than before. I think having light scares the predators."Mohamed Bundu, the Mogadishu director for the Danish Refugee Council, said that in addition to the extra security the May installation of the lights brought, they are also helping children study and businesses attract customers."All the criminal acts that were often committed because of the darkness have considerably gone down," he said.The 79 lights erected on tall poles in the Mogadishu camp cost about $2,000 each.Heather Amstutz, the regional director for the Danish Refugee Council, said the group has also installed solar lights in northern Somalia. The projects ask for buy-in from the communities they serve, which reduces the threat of vandalism or theft. The projects are paid for by U.N. funds.The lights "add five productive hours to these small settlements. Kids can study by the light, the vendors are selling their vegetables by the lights," she said. A U.N. monitoring group report on Somalia published last month said there are 530 camps in Mogadishu housing internally displaced people, 75 percent of whom are women and children who are particularly vulnerable to sexual attacks. The report said officials recorded 1,700 reported rapes between January and November 2012.The report said there were probably more attacks that weren't reported and that the number of reported rapes was higher than previous years.Attackers frequently wear government police or military uniforms, though the government has consistently denied its forces are responsible.Despite the positive impact of the solar lights, one past sexual violence victims says she still doesn't feel safe."I see that the lights are helpful but they cannot, sadly, prevent the rapists from coming," the veiled 30-year old woman said while standing at the door of her home. "We are still exposed to the rape attacks because no one protects us."Salad Ahmed, a 40-year old father of six, feels the lights are beneficial. Most camp residents can't fight back against attackers who wield guns or knives during attacks. Ahmed, though, has an axe and sword to protect his wife."The more you can see your enemy the more you can plan how you should engage him," he said.
Mall to Turn Off Lights for Earth Hour
Mall to Turn Off Lights for Earth Hour
"Together, let's do our part to save the planet."This is the stance taken by the Liberty Promenade Mall ahead of Earth Hour to be observed at the end of this month.The worldwide environmental initiative, Earth Hour, was created by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to encourage global citizens to turn off all their electronics, particularly their lights, for one hour as a representation of their commitment to the planet and the acknowledgment of the impact of Global Warming. Liberty Promenade, in solidarity with the rest of the world, will be switching off their 'Liberty Promenade' signage on the building as well as the lighting on the mall's billboard from 20:30 to 21:30 for Earth Hour on Saturday 30 March. But that is just scratching the surface on the impact the mall wishes to make on the topic of environmental initiatives. One of Liberty Promenade's key values is its ongoing commitment to both the environment and its community, and with this, the mall will be spreading a strong message about solar energy while enriching the lives of school children simultaneously – therefore paving the way for Mitchell's Plain to do their part in saving the planet.They believe that it is becoming increasingly important for learners and the public alike to understand how they can care for the environment, so they have embarked on a spectacular initiative of their own where 500 solar-powered lights, in the shape of little yellow suns, will be distributed to learners at Cascade and Tafelsig Primary Schools. Brian Unsted, Liberty Two Degrees' Asset Management Executive for Liberty Promenade, explains why this initiative is so important to both the mall and its owners: "Sustainability forms part of Liberty Two Degrees' strategic pillars, whereby taking care of our natural environment and educating shoppers and the public in the preserving of precious resources is what we are committed to. By embarking on this initiative, the youth of Mitchell's Plain are given the opportunity to learn about sustainability for the betterment of both the community and the environment." These little solar lights provide green, cost-free energy, and therefore has no negative impact on the environment. All they need is the sunshine to recharge! They are small, lightweight lamps which the children can carry with them wherever they go. They provide light for studying in the evenings or when walking in the dark, helping with their education and their safety. The lights will encourage families to go the solar power route, which will reduce electricity costs and further environmental damage.
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