SOLAR STREET LIGHT ARUDRA SOLUTION
Street lamp is a necessary part of every part of the street, with a primary function is to provide comfort to the driver and pedestrian. Street lamp also has a security function that is to prevent accidents and criminality. On the other hand, from environmental and economical perspectives, solar street lamp is better than the traditional street lamp, since the traditional technology uses far more energy during its operational life , .Solar street lamp is a lamp that utilizes solar cell to obtain electrical energy during the daylight hour by solar radiation and then stored in the battery , . At night, the energy saved in the battery is used to provide light on the street. Generally, there are two types of solar street lamps: (a) unintegrated lamp; (b) fully-integrated lamp, as shown in Figure 1. Unintegrated lamp is a lamp which are each component, i.e. lamp, solar cell, controller, and battery, separate from each other, as shown in Figure 1(a). However, the lack of this type of solar street lamp is in need of a complicated installation. Different from un-integrated lamp, fully-integrated lamp has integrated all the components of each lamp, as shown in Figure 1(b). The fully integrated lamp causes easier installation, although the component price of this type is expensive .Semi-integrated lamp (Figure 1c) tries to overcome both problems that is expensive and complicated installation. Semi-integrated solar street lamp only integrated solar cell, controller, and battery, while lamp is separated using cable. This configuration makes semi integrated lamp cheaper and easier for installation that is suitable for rural area.Why arenu2019t solar cells used much in producing voltage?The current delivering capacity is the issue. Combination of the good quality cells could probably deliver the high currents required, but setting a solar plant may cost more than the conventional plants.However, solar cells are used in low current circuits quite frequently.how many panels of solar cells i need to produce enough electricity for running a house's devises and machinesIt depends on what you want to run. There are systems out there that will run your entire house "off the grid" with very few panels. In this situation you can have as few as one panel up to 3 or 4 to run the whole house. Then there are panels that will only run things like a small appliance or cell charger. It really depends on your needs and your budget. The bigger and more expensive the systemWhat happens to solar cells in water (or in anything other than air)?This causes a drop in efficiency. For single junction cells, which are very tolerant to changes in spectrum, the drop will be much less than for multi junction solar cells which are designed for particular spectral conditions.The IV characteristic will change because the surface resistance will decrease causing a leak current. This will also reduce efficient.Reflection occurs at the interface between materials of different refractive index. Semiconductor have a high index, say around 3.5, so the reflection is high. For these reasons solar cells have surface antireflection treatment which tries to place a materials of intermediate index between the surface and air (#1). If you place this in water you will skew this behaviour away from the design specification. (#1) the details here are quite fascinating, I slightly over simplified this pointWhat is the cost of solar cells compared to the cost of fossil fuels?That's a very complex question, and somewhat of a moving target. Solar cells are getting cheaper. However, it's not really a direct comparison. If I buy a solar cell, it produces a kilowatt hour, continuously -- as long as the somewhat less. If I dig a gallon of oil out of the ground, refine it (which takes energy), it's use up. I think the best comparison would be to take the expected lifespan of a solar cell and calculate the cost of a kilowatt hour, including the cost of the solar panels, installation, etc., etc. my guess is that the solar panels would be much cheaper.besides batteries or solar cells or fuel cells, or generators what else is there that can produce high voltageYou are correct a nuclear power plant = a coal powered power plant with the boiler replaced by a nuclear reactor. Yes we can create electricity through other means, but we can not do it without electrons. A thermocouple can also be added to generate electricity by inserting two dissimilar metals in the reactor pool, but that would just create more radioactive elements to mess around with. A fusion reactor will probably be used to boil water to turn a generator as well. Electrons are the source of electricity without an electron there is no electricity. So you can not create electricity that way. A nuclear reaction passes neutrons around and creates neutron radiation; the electrons and protons are not altered or affected in any way. Instead they reform smaller radioactive elements through the process of atomic decay. A generator spins a coil of wire in a magnetic field to create electricity and beyond chemical reactions (batteries) and solar cells we do not know of any way to create electricity. Is there another source of high voltage; yes, lightning. Lightning is static electricity created by the clouds moving across the earth. It is the same force that creates a spark when you rub your feet on a shag carpet and touch a door knob. If you run a huge thermocouple into the volcanic earth and then cool the other ends in the artic atmosphere then you can create electricity, but the people in Iceland prefer to use the steam created to run conventional generators; they get more power that way.