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Basics of Solar Light Panels

2021-07-21 10:12:35

Basics of Solar Light Panels 1


1. What are the components of a solar light panel? (Bonus question)

Ultra-white high-transmission fabric tempered glass, EVA, conductive nickel-plated copper strip, battery cells, TPT backplane, aluminum alloy frame, junction box.


2. Please briefly introduce what are the characteristics of the solar light panel glass?

Super white mainly reflects good light transmission, cloth pattern is tempered glass with many groove points, the sunlight refracted through the groove points on the cloth pattern glass to achieve the most reasonable use of sunlight, if the glass does not do cloth pattern processing power generation efficiency will be reduced by 30%, if you do not use super white non-blue glass, power generation efficiency will be reduced by 10%.


3. Why are the colors of polysilicon solar light panels different?

Just like its name, polycrystalline cell chip, its manufacturing process is simpler and cheaper than single Du crystal. But at the same time, its efficiency is lower than that of monocrystalline silicon. It is thought that the polycrystalline cell is composed of many small crystal blocks with different crystal orientations, and the boundary between them is the grain boundary. The existence of these grain boundaries acts as the load center, absorbing some carriers, resulting in a slightly lower efficiency. From an optical point of view, the crystal regions with different orientations will have different optical reflection effects, and the intuitive feeling will be the appearance of patches.

In addition, the front of ghost film is coated (SiNx). The thickness of the film also determines the color of this side (blue or darker). The uniformity of the coating will further affect the color uniformity.


4. What is sunshine coefficient? How many hours is the sunshine coefficient in Guangdong Province? What are the requirements of sunshine coefficient for the configuration of solar lamps?

The sunshine coefficient refers to the time that the Solar Center irradiates the ground from the eastern horizon to the western horizon under any shielding conditions such as ground objects, clouds, etc., which is called the sunshine coefficient.

The sunshine coefficient of Guangdong Province is about 3.5H

Customers with sunshine coefficient higher than 4H are generally recommended to use monocrystalline silicon solar light panels, while customers with sunshine coefficient lower than 4H are recommended to use polycrystalline silicon solar light panels. The lower the sunshine coefficient is, the worse the power generation efficiency of solar light panels is. It is suggested to increase the configuration of solar light panels.


5. What is the installation angle of the solar light panel?

45 ° Southwest


Basics of Solar Light Panels 2


6. Why does monocrystalline silicon have chamfering?

The corner cutting of monocrystalline silicon solar light panels is mainly in the early development of solar light panels, in order to distinguish between single crystal and polycrystalline, there is no practical use.


7. What is the difference between monocrystalline silicon and polysilicon? How should we choose?

(1) Monocrystalline solar light panels have high cell conversion efficiency and good stability, but the cost is higher. 

(2) polycrystalline silicon solar light panels cost less, conversion efficiency is slightly lower than straight pull monocrystalline silicon solar light panels, various defects in the material, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, micro-defects, and impurities in the material carbon and oxygen, as well as the process of tarnishing the transition group metals are considered to be the cause of polycrystalline silicon solar panels photoelectric conversion rate has been unable to break through the 20% barrier.

Polycrystalline silicon is a little better than monocrystalline silicon for low light power generation. 

It is recommended to use monocrystalline silicon solar light panels where the sunlight factor is above 4h, and polycrystalline silicon solar panels where the sunlight factor is below 4h.


8. As the temperature increases, does the output voltage of the solar light panel decrease or increase?

Lower, with 20 degrees Celsius as the base, for every 1 degree Celsius increase, the voltage of the unit cell (1.5V) as the base, the voltage of the cell decreases by 2mv


9. What factors may cause the low voltage of solar light panels?

(1) Shade, leaves, bird droppings and other shading

When there are shade, leaves, bird droppings or other shading objects to prevent sunlight to photovoltaic modules, it will lead to the shading part does not generate electricity, resulting in low voltage of the whole module, for example: a polycrystalline photovoltaic module 60 pieces, each cell voltage is 0.5V, then the whole module voltage is normally 30V. when the shade blocked the component 10 cells, the component voltage is only 25V.

(2)Cell source itself problems

There are multiple reasons affecting the open-circuit voltage of the cell: 1. High/low resistivity of the raw material of the wafer; 2. Diffusion, including diffusion square resistance, diffusion pollution; 3. Printing paste and sintering. Of course these problems need professionals and testing instruments to check.

(3) Encapsulated backsheet failed

Solar cell backsheet is also known as solar cell backsheet film, photovoltaic backsheet, photovoltaic backsheet film, solar backsheet. Widely used in solar cell (photovoltaic) modules, located on the back of the solar panel, in the outdoor environment to protect solar cell components from water vapor erosion, hinder oxygen to prevent internal oxidation of the components, with reliable insulation, water resistance, aging resistance, high and low temperature resistance, corrosion resistance. It can reflect sunlight and improve the conversion efficiency of the module; it has a high infrared reflectivity and can reduce the temperature of the module. According to the classification of different materials, backsheet can be divided into FPF (represented by TPT), KPK, FPE (represented by TPE), KPE and multi-layer PET backsheet, TAPE (aluminum layer added between T and P layers), TFB (PVF/PET/fluorine bonding layer), KFB (PVDF/PET/fluorine bonding layer), BBF (THV/PET/EVA), and FFC(PET double side coated with modified PTFE), KPC(PVDF/special treatment PET), KPF(invented by Suzhou Sellwood, fluorine skin film technology, structure is PVDF/PET/fluorine skin film), PPC(special treatment PET/weather resistant PET), etc.

Similarly, the backsheet is divided into three layers, if the encapsulation material is not qualified, that is, the backsheet and EVA matching does not reach the adhesive force of the work instructions, in the process of use will make the components separate between each layer or the backsheet and EVA separate, resulting in wet or rainy weather PV modules into the internal water, the component voltage becomes low resulting in low resistance of the PV system to ground, thus affecting the system power generation.

(4) Cell hidden crack

Hidden crack is a defect of the cell. Due to the own characteristics of the crystal structure, crystalline silicon cells are very prone to rupture. The process of crystalline silicon module production is long, and many links may cause hidden cracking of cells (according to the information of Mr. Yang Hong of Xi'an Jiaotong University, there are about 200 causes in the cell production stage alone). The generation of hidden cracks will affect the whole module, and the cracked part of the cell will not generate electricity, or even turn into a resistor to affect other cells to generate electricity. There are three reasons for hidden cracks to arise: during the production process, during the storage period, and during the installation process.


Basics of Solar Light Panels 3


10. What are the possible causes of low solar light panel power generation efficiency?

(1) Improper installation position, poor welding process, packaging process there is a lack of glue phenomenon, or due to solar panels in handling, installation process improper operation, or even solar panels in the use of the process of hail violent impact and lead to solar panels breakage affect power generation efficiency

(2) If it is used for a period of time, the short-term may be the surface is not clean enough, the light becomes worse, the ambient temperature, long-term is the cell attenuation is more serious

(3) Silicon wafers with inefficient pieces, or mixed with invalid pieces, etc.

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