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Characteristics of lithium carbonate battery

2021-11-04 10:35:32

lithium carbonate battery

 

Characteristics of lithium carbonate battery

Lithium-ion battery: a secondary battery (rechargeable battery) that mainly depends on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes. In the process of charge and discharge, Li+ is embedded and de-embedded back and forth between the two electrodes: when charging, Li+ is detached from the positive electrode and embedded into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; the opposite is true during discharge.

Lithium batteries are divided into lithium batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Mobile phones and laptops use lithium-ion batteries, which are commonly known as lithium-ion batteries. Batteries generally use materials containing lithium as electrodes, which is the representative of modern high-performance batteries. However, real lithium batteries are rarely used in daily electronic products because of their high risk.

Mobile phone batteries are generally lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion battery is composed of positive electrode, negative electrode, diaphragm and electrolyte. The positive and negative electrodes are infiltrated in the electrolyte, and the lithium ion moves between the positive and negative electrodes with the electrolyte as the medium to realize the charge and discharge of the battery. In order to avoid the short circuit of the positive and negative electrodes through the electrolyte, the positive and negative electrodes need to be separated by a diaphragm.

In order to increase the energy density of the battery, mobile phone manufacturers use a thinner diaphragm to store more electricity in a limited volume. The decrease of the thickness increases the difficulty of the production of the diaphragm, which is easy to cause quality defects, so that the diaphragm can not effectively isolate the positive and negative electrodes, which leads to the short circuit and explosion of the battery.

Lithium-ion battery was first developed by Sony of Japan in 1990. It embeds lithium ions into carbon (petroleum coke and graphite) to form negative electrodes (traditional lithium batteries use lithium or lithium alloys as negative electrodes). LixCoO2 is commonly used as cathode material, LixNiO2 and LixMnO4 are also used, and LiPF6+ diethylene carbonate (EC) + dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is used as electrolyte.

Petroleum coke and graphite as anode materials are non-toxic and have sufficient resources. Lithium ion is embedded in carbon, which overcomes the high activity of lithium and solves the safety problems of traditional lithium battery. The positive LixCoO2 can reach a higher level in charge and discharge performance and life, so that the cost is reduced. In short, the comprehensive performance of lithium-ion battery is improved. It is expected that lithium-ion batteries will occupy a large market in the 21st century.

The reaction formula of lithium ion secondary battery during charge and discharge is LiCoO2+C=Li1-xCoO2+LixC

Lithium-ion batteries are easily confused with the following two types of batteries:

(1) Lithium battery: using metal lithium as negative electrode.

(2) Lithium ion battery: use non-aqueous liquid organic electrolyte.

(3) Lithium-ion polymer batteries: use polymers to gelate liquid organic solvents, or directly use all-solid electrolytes. Graphite-like carbon materials are generally used as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

 

lithium carbonate battery


In 1970, Exxon's M.S.Whittingham used titanium sulfide as the cathode material and lithium metal as the negative material to make the first lithium battery. The cathode material of lithium battery is manganese dioxide or thionyl chloride, and the negative electrode is lithium. After the battery is assembled, the battery has a voltage and does not need to be recharged. Lithium-ion battery (Li-ionBatteries) is developed from lithium battery. For example, the button batteries used in cameras used to be lithium batteries. This kind of battery can also be recharged, but the cycle performance is not good, in the charge and discharge cycle, it is easy to form lithium crystals, resulting in a short circuit inside the battery, so this kind of battery is generally prohibited from charging.

In 1982, R.R.Agarwal and J.R.Selman of Illinois Institute of Technology (theIllinoisInstituteofTechnology) found that lithium ion has the property of intercalating graphite. The process is fast and reversible. At the same time, the safety risks of lithium batteries made of metal lithium have attracted much attention, so people try to use the characteristics of lithium ion embedded in graphite to make rechargeable batteries. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully trial-produced by Bell Laboratories.

In 1983, M.Thackeray and J.Goodenough found that manganese spinel is an excellent cathode material with low price, stability and excellent electrical and lithium conductivity. Its decomposition temperature is high, and its oxidizability is much lower than that of lithium cobalt. Even if there is a short circuit and overcharge, it can avoid the danger of combustion and explosion.

In 1989, A.Manthiram and J.Goodenough found that positive electrodes with polymerized anions produce higher voltages.

In 1992, Sony Company of Japan invented the lithium battery with carbon material as negative electrode and lithium-containing compound as positive electrode. In the process of charging and discharging, there is no metal lithium, only lithium ion, this is lithium-ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized the face of consumer electronics. This kind of battery, which uses lithium cobalt as cathode material, is still the main power supply of portable electronic devices.

 

In 1996, Padhi and Goodenough found that phosphate with olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), is safer than traditional cathode materials, especially resistant to high temperature, and its overcharge resistance is much better than that of traditional lithium-ion battery materials.

Throughout the history of battery development, we can see the three characteristics of the current development of the battery industry in the world:

 

First, the rapid development of green batteries, including lithium-ion batteries, Ni-MH batteries, etc.;

Second, the transformation of primary batteries into batteries, which is in line with the strategy of sustainable development;

Third, the battery is further developing in the direction of small, light and thin. Among the commercial rechargeable batteries, lithium-ion batteries have the highest specific energy, especially polymer lithium-ion batteries, which can realize the thinning of rechargeable batteries. It is precisely because the volume specific energy and mass specific energy of lithium-ion battery is high, rechargeable and pollution-free, and has three major characteristics of the current development of battery industry, so it has a rapid growth in developed countries. The development of telecommunications and information market, especially the extensive use of mobile phones and notebooks, has brought market opportunities for lithium-ion batteries. Polymer lithium-ion battery in lithium-ion battery will gradually replace liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery and become the mainstream of lithium-ion battery because of its unique advantage in safety. Polymer lithium-ion battery is known as "the battery of the 21st century", which will open up a new era of storage battery and its development prospect is very optimistic.

In March 2015, Sharp in Japan and Professor Gong Tanaka of Kyoto University successfully developed a lithium-ion battery with a service life of up to 70 years. The trial-produced long-lived lithium-ion battery has a volume of 8 cubic centimeters and can be charged and discharged 25000 times. And Sharp said that after the actual charge and discharge of 10,000 times, the performance of the long-lived lithium-ion battery is still stable.

 

lithium carbonate battery


Steel shell / aluminum shell / cylinder / flexible packaging series:

(1) positive electrode-active materials are generally lithium manganate or lithium cobalt, lithium nickel cobalt manganate materials, while electric bicycles generally use lithium nickel cobalt manganate (commonly known as ternary) or ternary + a small amount of lithium manganate. Pure lithium manganate and lithium iron phosphate gradually fade out because of their large size, poor performance or high cost. The conductive electrode fluid uses electrolytic aluminum foil with a thickness of 10 Mel / 20 μ m.

(2) diaphragm-A specially formed polymer film with a microporous structure that allows lithium ions to pass freely, but electrons cannot pass through.

(3) the negative electrode-the active material is graphite, or carbon with similar graphite structure, and the conductive current collector uses electrolytic copper foil with a thickness of 7-15 microns.

(4) Organic electrolyte-carbonate solvent dissolved with lithium hexafluorophosphate and gel electrolyte for polymer.

(5) battery shell-divided into steel shell (square type is rarely used), aluminum shell, nickel-plated iron shell (cylindrical battery use), aluminum-plastic film (flexible packaging), etc., as well as the battery cap, which is also the positive and negative pole leading end of the battery.

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