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Development history and current situation of photovoltaic power generation

2021-06-30 09:18:23

Since the first practical photovoltaic cell came out in 1954, solar photovoltaic power generation has made great progress. But it is much slower than the development of computer and optical fiber communication. The reason may be that people's pursuit of information is particularly strong, and conventional energy can meet the human demand for energy. The oil crisis in 1973 and the environmental pollution in 1990s greatly promoted the development of solar photovoltaic power generation.

 

Its development process is as follows:

In 1893, French scientist Becquerel discovered "photovoltaic effect", namely "photovoltaic effect".

In 1876, Adams and others discovered the solid-state photovoltaic effect on metal and selenium.

In 1883, the first "selenium photocell" was made and used as a sensitive device.

In 1930, Schottky put forward the theory of "photovoltaic effect" of Cu2O barrier. In his childhood, Langer proposed for the first time to use "photovoltaic effect" to make "solar cells" to turn solar energy into electricity.

In 1931 Bruno immersed copper compounds and selenium silver electrodes in an electrolyte and started a motor in the sun.

In 1932, audubote and stola made the first "CDs" solar cell.

In 1941, Orr discovered the photovoltaic effect on silicon.

In 1954, Chapin and Pearson made a practical single crystal solar cell for the first time at Bell Laboratories, with an efficiency of 6%.

In the same year, wicker discovered for the first time that gallium arsenide has photovoltaic effect, and deposited CdS thin film on glass to make the first thin film solar cell.

In 1955, Ginny and rofeiski optimized the photoelectric conversion efficiency of materials. In the same year, the first photoelectric navigation light came out. RCA studies GaAs solar cells.

In 1957, the efficiency of silicon solar cells reached 8%.

In 1958, solar cells were first used in space, equipped with pioneer-1 satellite power supply.

In 1959, the first polysilicon solar cell came out, with an efficiency of 5%.

In 1960, silicon solar cells were connected to the grid for the first time.

In 1962, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of GaAs solar cells reached 13%.

In 1969, the efficiency of thin film CDs solar cells reached 8%.

In 1972, rofeiski developed a purple photocell with an efficiency of 16%.

In 1972, NASA back field battery came out.

In 1973, the efficiency of GaAs solar cells reached 15%.

In 1974, comsat Institute proposed a non reflective textured solar cell. The efficiency of silicon solar cell is 18%.

In 1975, amorphous silicon solar cells came out. In the same year, with silicon battery efficiency of 6%.

In 1976, the efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells reached 10%.

In 1978, 100kwp solar ground photovoltaic power station was built in the United States.

In 1980, the efficiency of monocrystalline silicon solar cells was 20%, that of GaAs solar cells was 22.5%, that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells was 14.5%, and that of CDs solar cells was 9.15%.

In 1983, 1mwp photovoltaic power station was built in the United States; Metallurgical silicon (epitaxial) cell efficiency up to 11.8%.

In 1986, a 6.5mwp photovoltaic power station was built in the United States.

In 1990, Germany put forward "2000 photovoltaic roof plan", each family's roof is equipped with 3-5kwp photovoltaic cells.

In 1995, the efficiency of GaAs solar cells reached 32%.

In 1997, the United States put forward "President Clinton's one million solar roof plan". Before 2010, 1 million households will be installed with 3-5kwp photovoltaic cells. When there is sunlight, the photovoltaic roof supplies power to the power grid, and the meter reverses; When there is no sun, the grid supplies power to the home, and the meter turns forward.

In 1997, Japan's "new sunshine plan" proposed to produce 4.3 billion WP photovoltaic cells by 2010.

In 1997, the European Union plans to produce 3.7 billion WP photovoltaic cells by 2010.

In 1998, the efficiency of monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells reached 25%. The Dutch government proposed the "one million solar photovoltaic roofs plan" to be completed by 2020.

 

Solar cell, also known as "solar chip" or "photocell", is a kind of photoelectric semiconductor sheet that uses sunlight to generate electricity directly. Single solar cells can not be used as power supply directly. As a power supply, a number of single solar cells must be connected in series and parallel and tightly packaged into modules.

 

Solar panel (also called solar cell module) the assembly of multiple solar cells is the core part of the solar power generation system, and also the most important part of the solar power generation system.

 

Solar energy is the most important basic energy in all kinds of renewable energy. Biomass energy, wind energy, ocean energy and water energy all come from solar energy. Broadly speaking, solar energy includes all kinds of renewable energy. As a kind of renewable energy, solar energy refers to the direct conversion and utilization of solar energy. The technology of converting solar radiation energy into heat energy through conversion device belongs to solar heat utilization technology, and the technology of using heat energy to generate electricity is called solar heat; Power generation also belongs to this technical field; The solar radiation energy is converted into electric energy by conversion device, which belongs to solar photovoltaic power generation technology. Photoelectric conversion device usually uses the photovoltaic effect principle of semiconductor devices for photoelectric conversion, so it is also called solar photovoltaic technology.

 

Solar energy is the most important basic energy in all kinds of renewable energy. Biomass energy, wind energy, ocean energy and water energy all come from solar energy. Broadly speaking, solar energy includes all kinds of renewable energy. As a kind of renewable energy, solar energy refers to the direct conversion and utilization of solar energy. The technology of converting solar radiation energy into heat energy through conversion device belongs to solar heat utilization technology, and the technology of using heat energy to generate electricity is called solar heat; Power generation also belongs to this technical field; The solar radiation energy is converted into electric energy by conversion device, which belongs to solar photovoltaic power generation technology. Photoelectric conversion device usually uses the photovoltaic effect principle of semiconductor devices for photoelectric conversion, so it is also called solar photovoltaic technology.

 

Development history and current situation of photovoltaic power generation 1

 

In the 1950s, there were two major technological breakthroughs in the field of solar energy utilization: one was the development of 6% practical monocrystalline silicon cells by Bell Laboratories in the United States in 1954; the other was the concept and theory of selective absorption surface proposed by Israel Tabor in 1955, and the selective solar absorption coating was successfully developed. These two technological breakthroughs have laid a technical foundation for the utilization of solar energy (LUMUSSOLEM) to enter the modern development period.

 

Development history and current situation of photovoltaic power generation 2

 

Characteristics of solar cell (LUMUSSOLEM): solar cell is a huge PN junction, which converts solar energy into electric energy. For a single-chip solar cell, it is a small PN junction, which can generate electric energy when the sun shines on it, and it also has all the characteristics of PN junction. Under standard illumination, its rated output voltage is 0.48v. In the use of solar lighting, solar cell modules are composed of multiple solar cells connected. It has a negative temperature coefficient, and the voltage drops by 2 MV with each temperature rise.

 

For the solar cell module composed of multiple solar cells, the parameters of solar cells are generally as follows: ISC is the short-circuit current, IM is the peak current, VOC is the open circuit voltage. VM is the peak voltage and PM is the peak efficiency. In use, the solar cell open circuit or short circuit will not cause damage, in fact, we also use this feature to control the system lithium battery charge and discharge.

 

Selection of solar cells (LUMUSSOLEM): The solar cell output power WP is the standard solar light conditions, namely the 101 standard defined by the European Commission, 1000W/m², atmospheric mass AM1.5, battery temperature of 25 ° C. This condition is about the same as the usual sun around noon on sunny days. This is not, as some people imagine, a rated output and even thinking that solar cells can work properly in night daylight. That is, the output power of solar cells (LUMUSSOLEM) is random, and the same solar cell is different at different times and places.

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